Community-service and law-enforcement authorities have taken a role in protecting potential victims and in prosecuting perpetrators. Most reports of abuse were submitted by educational personnel Other important advantages of the skeletal survey include a high sensitivity for most acute and healing fractures and a relatively low radiation burden. Geometric distortion and varying exposures are unacceptable limitations of this image. Use of a high-detail, high-contrast, screen-film system with good spatial resolution is mandatory. All abnormal areas should be viewed on at least 2 projections. Computed tomography CT scanning of the head is the imaging modality of choice for evaluating a child with acute neurologic findings or retinal hemorrhage on physical examination.
The Open Neurology Journal
Hearing loss or hearing ringing tinnitus Blurred Vision Causes[ edit ] Subdural hematomas are most often caused by head injury , when rapidly changing velocities within the skull may stretch and tear small bridging veins. Subdural hematomas due to head injury are described as traumatic. Much more common than epidural hemorrhages , subdural hemorrhages generally result from shearing injuries due to various rotational or linear forces.
Subdural hematoma is also commonly seen in the elderly and in alcoholics, who have evidence of cerebral atrophy.
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Brain Contusions Simply explained, a brain contusion is a bruise of the brain tissue. Just like bruises that occur on other parts of the body, a brain contusion is caused by small blood vessel leaks. Because they involve structural brain damage, contusions are more serious than concussions. Get a Free Legal Evaluation Causes of Brain Contusions Brain contusions are most often caused by an impact to the head , such as those sustained in a car accident, a fall, or a sports-related accident.
In some cases the brain is injured right below the site of impact, while in other cases the injury occurs on the opposite side of the impact. Contusions are most often found in cortical tissue, in areas that are near sharp ridges on the inside of the skull, such as under the frontal and temporal lobes and on the root of the ocular orbit. Signs and Symptoms Contusions can be very minor with few symptoms and little or no damage to the brain, or they can be quite severe. People with severe contusions often spend some time unconscious following the injury, and upon awaking are confused, tired, emotional, or agitated.
MRI, although often excellent at detecting intracranial injuries, has been shown to be much less sensitive at detecting skull fractures [ 13 ]. Whether from accidental or abusive injuries, our ability to detect subtle fractures, many that might have been difficult to see during the era when only axial CT images could be obtained, has clearly increased with the routine use of sagittal, coronal, and 3-dimensional reconstructions of the skull from CT head exams Fig.
Radiology practices should consider routinely including these multiplanar reconstructions, especially in the pediatric and child abuse populations where they also help delineate normal structures, such as sutures or vascular grooves from a potentially overcalled fracture [ 14 ] Fig. These reconstructions further delineate depressed or complex fractures of the skull and may help to show how a fracture that appears more complex on radiographs may actually represent one impact, as the fracture extent is more easily followed across sutures or over the cranial vertex.
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Severe headache, fever and altered consciousness require urgent care. Infants and young children with any signs or symptoms of encephalitis should receive urgent care. Secondary encephalitis refers to an infection which started off elsewhere in the body and then spread to the brain. Signs and symptoms in infants small babies – encephalitis is harder to initially detect in infants. Parents or guardians should look out for vomiting, a bulging fontanel soft area on the top center of the head , incessant crying that does not get better when the baby is picked up and comforted, and body stiffness.
What are the causes of encephalitis? Encephalitis can develop as a result of a direct infection to the brain by a virus, bacterium or fungus infectious encephalitis, or primary encephalitis , or when the immune system responds to a previous infection; the immune system mistakenly attacks brain tissue secondary encephalitis, or post-infectious encephalitis.
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According to the unproven SBS hypothesis, shaking causes the brain to impact against the inside of the skull, causing widespread brain damage Diffuse Axonal Injury and ripping shearing the veins between the brain and skull bridging veins resulting in bleeding Subdural Hematoma in the “subdural spaces” in between and behind the eyes Retinal Hemorrhages. In fact, the exact cause–mechanism of action–of retinal hemorrhages remains unknown. The shaking hypothesis evolved in the worst possible way, scientifically speaking.
Caffey read about an incident where an enormous, muscle-bound nurse admitted to shaking numerous infants and babies in her care, three of whom later died, although it wasn’t proven that shaking was the cause of death. Normally, to prove a hypothesis, other causes of the same symptoms must be identified Differential Diagnosis and eliminated.
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The Amanda Truth Project: Bleeding between the brain and skull subdural hematoma 2. Bleeding behind the eye bilateral retinal hemorrhaging 3. Ayub Ommaya ‘s article “Whiplash. John Caffey from the United States picked up Guthkelch’s observations and continued on with his own studies. She died soon after. In the past decade, that consensus has begun to come undone.
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The need for expertise in the care of the acute stroke patient is governed by three, well-established goals: To minimize the extent of brain injury. To medically support the stroke patient and encourage optimal chance for functional recovery. To prevent further brain injury secondary to the initial accident or repeated vascular accidents. The above goals are unlikely to change though the tools available to achieve them are constantly being refined.
The wide array of management problems posed by treating patients with acute neurovascular emergencies drives the requirements for medical expertise.
Bodies of Nicole Simpson and Ronald Goldman found. On June 13, , a couple in Los Angeles were puzzled after their dog, a small white Akita, returned home with blood on his paws.
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Abusive head trauma: extra-axial hemorrhage and nonhemic collections
I have an anxiety disorder on and off. This raises my BP readings. The risk here is sudden incapacitation. Still is a disqualifier.
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Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Subarachnoid hemorrhage is the result of a blood vessel bursting in the subarachnoid space, which is the area just outside of the brain. This causes the area to quickly fill with blood. Get a Free Legal Evaluation Symptoms of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage As a result of the rapid, intense pressure, the most common symptom of subarachnoid hemorrhage is sudden, severe headache.
This pain is often described afterward as the worst headache ever experienced by the patient. Other symptoms include neck pain, nausea, and vomiting. In some cases, loss of consciousness and death occur. Causes of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage The most frequent cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage is abnormalities in the arteries located at the base of the brain. Called cerebral aneurysms , there are small areas of either rounded or irregular swellings in the arteries.
As the swelling continues the arteries weaken, and become prone to breaking. While subarachnoid hemorrhages can occur in people of any age and any gender, they are slightly more common in women than in men.
Neurologic and Mental
On April 11, , the Administration for Children’s Services hereinafter petitioner filed an Article 10 petition alleging, inter alia, that the respondent mother, Yvette E. The petition further alleges that neither parent had an explanation for the child’s injuries, and the injuries were consistent with abusive head trauma. The petition also alleges that the subject child, Joshua D.
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Full paralysis of the limbs Cannot breathe without mechanical ventilation C5 Paralysis of the wrists, hands, and triceps Difficulty coughing, may need help clearing secretions C6 Paralysis of the wrist flexors, triceps, and hands C7—C8 Some hand muscle weakness, difficulty grasping and releasing Additional signs and symptoms of cervical injuries include low heart rate , low blood pressure , problems regulating body temperature , and breathing dysfunction. In the long term, the loss of muscle function can have additional effects from disuse, including atrophy of the muscle.
Immobility can lead to pressure sores , particularly in bony areas, requiring precautions such as extra cushioning and turning in bed every two hours in the acute setting to relieve pressure. People with SCI are at especially high risk for respiratory and cardiovascular problems, so hospital staff must be watchful to avoid them. Spinal cord injuries are most often caused by physical trauma. The features are namely paralysis, sensory loss, or both at any level.
Other symptoms may include incontinence. The use of a cervical collar has been shown to increase mortality in people with penetrating trauma and is thus not routinely recommended in this group.